Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.
Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus happens when the part of the pancreas that makes insulin is destroyed by that person's own immune system. When the pancreas does not make insulin, glucose – sugar – in the blood cannot get into the parts of the body that need sugar to live.
If insulin is not given for some time, blood sugar can rise to the point of causing a diabetic ketoacidosis. This is a life-threatening condition that happens much morefrequently in type 1 than in type 2 diabetics. In type 2, the body makes insulin, but the body's cells are resistant to it.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. If you have type 2diabetes your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it.
People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care. This includes monitoring blood glucose levels, dietary management, maintaining physical activity, keeping weight and stress under control, monitoring oral medications and, if required, insulin use via injections or pump.
A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.
Possible complications include:
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